Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Traditional Instant Parem From Usada Bali on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Mice Model

  • Putu Era Sandhi Kusuma Yuda Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar
  • Gusti Ayu Putu Yosinta Sasmita Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar
  • Erna Cahyaningsih Fakultas Farmasi, Universitas Mahasaraswati Denpasar


The increase of adverse reactions from anti-inflammatory drugs that are used in the long term by rheumatic patients requires a relatively safer alternative therapy. This research was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Usada Bali's instant parem (BIO-PAREM) as an anti-inflammatory agent against carrageenan-induced inflammatory mice. The method used was randomized pre-test and post-test with control group design using 24 mice which were divided into 4 treatment groups. The negative control group was given a vehicle, the positive control group was given anti-inflammatory gel of diclofenac sodium, group 3 (P1) was given BIO-PAREM with a concentration of 12.5% and group 4 (P2) was given BIO-PAREM with a concentration of 25%. All groups were induced with 1% carrageenan, then the mice's paw edema volume was calculated using a plethysmometer at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours. The Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney test were used to analyse the relative change of inflammation volume. The BIO-PAREM phytochemical screening assay showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and triterpenoids. BIO-PAREM showed significant inhibition of mice's paw edema at concentrations of 12.5% and 25% (p <0.05) indicating its potential as a candidate for topical alternative treatment for rheumatism.


1. Lin YJ, Anzaghe M, Schülke S. Update on the Pathomechanism, Diagnosis, and Treatment Options for Rheumatoid Arthritis. Cells. 2020;9(4):880.

2. Firestein GS, McInnes IB. Immunopathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. Immunity. 2017;46(2):183-196.

3. Ferro F, Elefante E, Luciano N, Talarico R, Todoerti M. One year in review 2017: novelties in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2017;35(5):721-34.

4. Bullock J, Rizvi SA, Saleh AM, Ahmed SS, Do DP, Ansari RA, Ahmed J. Rheumatoid arthritis: a brief overview of the treatment. Medical Principles and Practice. 2018;27(6):501-7.

5. Bindu S, Mazumder S, Bandyopadhyay U. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and organ damage: A current perspective. Biochemical Pharmacology. 2020;180(114147):1-21.

6. Baranowski DC, Buchanan B, Dwyer HC, Gabriele JP, Kelly S, Araujo JA. Penetration and efficacy of transdermal NSAIDs in a model of acute joint inflammation. Journal of pain research. 2018;11:2809-19.

7. Dragos D, Gilca M, Gaman L, et al. Phytomedicine in joint disorders. Nutrients. 2017;9(70):1-18.

8. Asasutjarit R, Sookdee P, Veeranondha S, Fuongfuchat A, Itharat A. Application of film-forming solution as a transdermal delivery system of piperine-rich herbal mixture extract for anti-inflammation. Heliyon. 2020;6(6):e04139.

9. Mendes Hoepers S, Tolentino de Souza HG, Meira Quintão NL, Roberto Santin J, Cechinel Filho V, Silva RM, Garcia Couto A, Simão da Silva KA. Topical anti-inflammatory activity of semisolid containing standardized Aleurites moluccana L. Willd (Euphorbiaceae) leaves extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2015;173:251-5.

10. Ziaei A, Sahranavard S, Gharagozlou MJ, Faizi M.Preliminary investigation of the effects of topical mixture of Lawsonia inermis L. and Ricinus communis L. leaves extract in treatment of osteoarthritis using MIA model in rats. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2016;24(12):1-20.

11. Nala IGN. Usada di Bali dalam Usada Majalah Kesehatan. Denpasar: Paramita; 2007.

12. Sari M. Usada Bali seri menguak dahsyatnya khasiat ramuan obat herbal (Taru Pramanan). Denpasar: Paramita; 2015.

13. Sulaiman MR, Zakaria ZA, Daud IA, Ng FN, Ng YC, Hidayat MT. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of Kaempferia galanga leaves in animal models. Journal of Natural Medicines. 2008;62(2):221-7.

14. Raji Y, Udoh US, Oluwadara OO, Akinsomisoye OS, Awobajo O, Adeshoga K. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the rhizome extract Zingiber officinale. African Journal of Biomedical Research. 2002;5:121–4.

15. Said, A. Khasiat dan manfaat kunyit. Jakarta: PT. Sinar Wadjar Lestari; 2007.

16. Murakami Y, Shoji M, Hanazawa S, Tanaka S, Fujisawa S. Preventive effect of bis-eugenol, a eugenol ortho dimer, on lipopoly saccharide-stimulated nuclear factor kappa B activation and inflammatory cytokine expression in macrophages. Biochemical pharmacology. 2003;66(6):1061-6.

17. Hartanto ES dan Silitonga FS. Ekstraksi asam miristat asal biji pala (Myristica fragrans Houtt) dan limbah industri olahannya. Indonesian Journal of Industrial Research. 2018;35(1):38-45.

18. Marliana SD, Suryanti V, Suyono. Skrining fitokimia dan analisis kromatografi lapis tipis komponen kimia buah labu siam (Sechium edule Jacq. Swatz) dalam ekstrak etanol. Jurnal Biofarmasi. 2005;3(1):26-31.

19. Raphael E. Phytochemical constituents of some leaves extract of Aloe vera and Azadirachta indica plant species. Journal of Environmental Science and Toxicology. 2012;1(2): 14-7.

20. Ugochukwu SC, Arukwe UI, Onuoha I. Preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extract of stem bark and roots of Dennetia tripetala G. Baker. Asian Journal of Plant Science & Research, 3. 2013;3(3):10-3.

21. Nirwana AP, Astirin OP, Widiyani T. Skrining fitokimia ekstrak etanol daun benalu kersen (Dendrophtoe pentandra L. Miq.). El-Vivo. 2015; 3(2): 9-15.

22. Jones WP, Kinghorn AD. Extraction of plant secondary metabolites. In: Sarker, S. D., Latif, Z. and Gray, A. I., eds. Natural products isolation. 2nd Ed. New Jersey: Humana Press; 2006.P.341-2.

23. Evans CW. Pharmacognosy trease and evans, 16th edition. Saunders Elsevier, London. UK; 2009.

24. Coura CO, Souza RB, Rodrigues JA, et al. Mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of a polysulfated fraction from Gracilaria cornea in rats. PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0119319.

25. Lingadurai S, Nath LK, Kar PK, Besra SE, Joseph RV. Anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of methanolic extract of the leaves of Fraxinus floribunda Wallich. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and A lternative Medicines. 2007;4(4):411-6.

26. Amdekar S, Roy P, Singh V, Kumar A, Singh R, Sharma P. Anti-inflammatory activity of Lactobacillus on carrageenan-induced paw edema in male wistar rats. International journal of inflammation. 2012;2012:752015.

27. D’Mello P, Gadhwal M, Joshi U. Modeling of COX-2 inhibitory activity of flavonoids. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2011;3:33-40.

28. Nijveldt RJ, van Nood E, van Hoorn DE, Boelens PG, van Norren K, van Leeuwen PA. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001;74(4):418-25.
29. Hossain H, Al-Mansur A, Akter S, SaraU, Ahmed MR, Jahangir AA. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity and total tannin content from the leaves of Bacopa monnieri (Linn.). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciencesand Research . 2014;5(4):1246-52.

30. Yahfoufi N, Alsadi N, Jambi M, Matar C. The Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory role of polyphenols. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1618.

31. Souto AL, Tavares JF, da Silva MS, Diniz Mde F, de Athayde-Filho PF, Barbosa Filho JM. Antiinflammatory activity of alkaloids: an update from 2000 to 2010. Molecules. 2011;16(10):8515-34.

32. Barbosa-Filho JM, Piuvezam MR, Moura MD, Silva MS, Lima KVB, da-Cunha EVL, et al. Antiinflammatory activity of alkaloids: A twenty-century review. RRevista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2006;16(1):109-39.

33. Prakash V. Terpenoids as source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research. 2017;10(3):68-76.

34. Fristiohady A, Wahyuni W, Malik F. In vitro antiinflammatory activity of Etlingera elatior (jack) RM Smith by RBC membrane stabilization method. Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia. 2020;18(2):150-7.

35. Sahlan M, Devina A, Pratami DK, Situmorang H, Farida S, Munim A, Kusumoputro B, Yohda M, Faried A, Gozan M, Ledyawati M. Anti-inflammatory activity of Tetragronula species from Indonesia. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2019;26(7):1531-8.

36. Farida S, Pratami DK, Sahlan M, Laksmitawati DR, Rohmatin E, Situmorang H. In-vitro antioxidant, in-vivo anti-inflammatory, and acute toxicity study of Indonesian propolis capsule from Tetragonula sapiens. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences. 2022;29(4):2489-500.

37. Ge J, Liu Z, Zhong Z, Wang L, Zhuo X, Li J, Jiang X, Ye XY, Xie T, Bai R. Natural terpenoids with anti-inflammatory activities: potential leads for antiinflammatory drug discovery. Bioorganic Chemistry. 2022:105817:1-24.

38. Ondeykal JG, Herath KB, Jayasuriya H, Polishook JD, Bills GF, Dombrowski AW, et al. Discovery of structurally diverse natural product antagonists of chemokine receptor CXCR3. Molecular diversity. 2005;9: 123-9.
How to Cite
YUDA, Putu Era Sandhi Kusuma; SASMITA, Gusti Ayu Putu Yosinta; CAHYANINGSIH, Erna. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Traditional Instant Parem From Usada Bali on Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Mice Model. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 20, n. 2, p. 142-149, oct. 2022. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 08 feb. 2023. doi: