Physical and Chemical Characteristic, Irritation Index and Anti-inflammatory Activity from Ointment of Syzygium aromaticum Oil by Adding an Enhancer

  • Muhammad Alfian Departement of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Halal Industry, Universitas of Nahdlatul Ulama Yogyakarta, Yogyakarta, Special District of Yogyakarta, 55162, Indonesia
  • Nining Sugihartini Departement of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Special District of Yogyakarta, 55162, Indonesia
  • Sapto Yuliani Departement of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas of Ahmad Dahlan, Yogyakarta, Special District of Yogyakarta, 55162, Indonesia


This research aimed to evaluate how enhancers affect the properties of Syzygium aromaticum oil in both water-soluble and hydrocarbon bases. Physical and chemical characteristic tests, irritation index evaluations, and anti-inflammatory activity assessments were carried out to analyze the Syzygium aromaticum oil ointment. The pH tests were conducted to measure the chemical characteristics and viscosity, adhesivity, spreadability tests were conducted to measure the physical characteristics of the ointment. Rabbit-based tests were used to determine the irritation index, mice induced by crotton oil were used in anti-inflammatory activity assessments. The pH tests revealed no significant differences between both of ointments. The ointment in the water-soluble base had higher viscosity and adhesivity but lower spreadability than the ointment in the hydrocarbon base. The epidermis thickness of watersoluble and hydrocarbon-based ointments was 3.81±0.40 μm and 4.22±0.15 μm, while the number of cells with COX-2 expression was 18.24±6.51 and 21.01±5.96. The addition of enhancers did not cause any irritation in either ointment. The study concluded that the formula of Syzygium aromaticum oil in a water-soluble ointment with the addition of propylene glycol and oleic acid (70:30) as enhancers provided better physical and chemical characteristics, a lower irritation index, and higher anti-inflammatory activity compared to the hydrocarbon.


1. Pratimasari D, Sugihartini N, Yuwono T. Evaluasi sifat fisik dan uji iritasi sediaan salep minyak atsiri bunga cengkeh dalam basis larut air. J Ilm Farm. 2015;11(1):9-15.

2. Safriani R, Sugihartini N, Yuliani S. Physical characteristic and irritation index of Syzigium aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams. IOP Conf Ser Mater Sci Eng. 2017;259(1):012005.

3. Bala P, Jathar S, Kale S, Pal K. Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) - a multifaceted approach for drug delivery. J Pharm Res. 2014;8(12):1805-35.

4. Sugihartini N, Kurniawan MF, Yuwono T. Anti-inflammatory activity of Syzygium aromaticum essential oil in emulgel. Jordan J Pharm Sci. 2020;13(2):161-7.

5. Rahmawati D, Sugihartini N, Yuwono T. Daya antiinflamasi salep basis larut air minyak atsiri bunga cengkeh (Syzygium aromaticum) dengan variasi komposisi enhancer asam oleat dan propilen glikol. Berk Ilmu Kesehat Kulit dan kelamin. 2017;29(3):182-7.

6. Sugihartini N, Lestari G, Yuliani S. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) in O/W and W/O creams. Pharmaciana . 2019;9(1):109- 18.

7. Susilowati, E. P. & Wahyuningsih, S. S., (2014). Opti¬mization of ointment which containing eugenol isolation of oil clove (Eugenia caryophylatta thunb.) Indo¬nesian Journal on Medical Science. 2014;1(2):29–34.

8. Alfian M, Maulana ML, Mustainin M. Formulation and physical stability of temulawak (Curcuma xanthorhiza Roxb.) antiaging lotion with natural colorant from strawberry extract (Fragaria vesca L). 2023;9(1):20-6.

9. BPOM, Pedoman uji toksisitas non-klinik secara in-vivo, Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan RI : Jakarta; 2014

10. Rowe, C. R., Sheskey, J. P., Quinn, E. M. Handbook of pharmaceutical excipients, American Pharmaceutical Assosiation, New York, USA; 2009

11. Naibaho, O. H., Yamlean, P. V. Y., & Wiyono, W. Pengaruh basis salep terhadap formulasi sediaan salep ekstrak daun kemangi (Ocimum sanctum L.) pada kulit punggung kelinci yang dibuat infeksi Staphylococcus aureus. Pharmacon. 2013;2(02): 27–34.

12. Garg A., Aggarwal D., Garg S., & Sigla A.K. Spreading of semisolid formulation an update. Pharmaceutical Technology. 2002;26: 84-105.

13. Alfian, M., Hasanudin, M. N., & Mujib, M. F. Uji sifat fisik sediaan gel ekstrak etanol daun kitolod. JIFS: Jurnal Ilmiah Farmasi Simplisia. 2022;2(1):1–7.

14. Niu QL, Sun H, Liu C, Li J, Liang CX, Zhang RR. Ge FR, Liu W. Croton tiglium essential oil compounds have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in A549 lung cancer cell lines. Journal Plos One. 2020;15(5):1–16.

15. Orra, Susan BA; Waltzman, Joshua T. MD, MBA; Mlynek, Karolina MD, MBA; Duraes, Eliana F.R. MD; Kundu, Neilendu MD; Zins, James E. MD, FACS. Periorbital phenol-croton oil chemical peel in conjunction with blepharoplasty: an evolving technique for periorbital facial rejuvenation. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2015. 136(4S):99-100.

16. Boligon,A.A., Moreira,L.D.R., Piana, M., Campos,M.M.A., & Oliveira,S.A., Topical antiedematogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of Scutia buxifolia reissek gel and stability study. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology. 2017;167:29-35.

17. Subramanian V, Vellaichamy E. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits DMBA / croton oil induced skin tumor growth by modulating NF- κ B , MMPs , and in filtrating mast cells in swiss albino mice. Eur J Pharmacol. 2014;740:388-97.

18. Nunes R, Arantes MB, Menezes S, et al. Plants as sources of anti-inflammatory agents. Molecules. 2020; 25:3726

19. Kogan, A., & Garti, N. Microemulsions as transdermal drug delivery vehicles. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science. 2006;126:369–85.

20. Jiang S.J.,& Zhou, X.J. Examination of the mechanism of oleic acid-induced percutaneous penetration en-hancement: an ultrastructural study. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Jan;26(1):66-8.

21. Trommer, H., and Neubert, R. Overcoming the stratum corneum: the modulation of skin penetration a review. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology. 2006; 19(2):106–21.

22. Songkro, S. An overview of skin penetration enhancers : penetration enhancing activity , skin irritation potential and mechanism of action. Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology. 2009; 31(3):299–321.

23. Mohammed D, Hirata K, Hadgraft J, Lane ME. Influence of skin penetration enhancers on skin barrier function and skin protease activity. European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014;51:118-22.
How to Cite
ALFIAN, Muhammad; SUGIHARTINI, Nining; YULIANI, Sapto. Physical and Chemical Characteristic, Irritation Index and Anti-inflammatory Activity from Ointment of Syzygium aromaticum Oil by Adding an Enhancer. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 21, n. 2, p. 247-253, oct. 2023. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 may 2024. doi: