Diabetic Wound Healing and Antimicrobial Activities of Gels Melastoma malabathricum L. and Psidium guajava L. in Sprague Dawley Rats

  • Refdanita Refdanita Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Science and Technology
  • Tonny Cortis Maigoda Department of Nutrition, Poltekkes Kemenkes Bengkulu
  • Firdaus Firdaus Department of Nutrition, Public Health Faculty, Andalas University
  • Barakatun Nisak Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Science, University Putra Malaysia
  • Teodhora Teodhora Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Science and Technology


Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a degenerative disease characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate, lipid, and protein metabolisms. This research was aimed at the gel’s pharmacological activity, the extract’s potential in treating diabetic wounds in male rats of Melastoma malabathricum L leaves (ML) and Psidium guajava L leaves (PL), as well as microbiological activity. Viscous extracts of ML and PL were prepared in gel dosage form with concentrations of 4% and 6%. Clindamycin was used as a positive control. This study was conducted using an experimental laboratory method, and the study population included white male rats. The pharmacological activity was tested in the form of a gel dosage formula, and the rats were made diabetic using alloxan. The potential of the extract was observed in healing diabetic wounds in male rats. ML and PL leaf extract gels affect wound healing in diabetic patients. This can be seen from the change in diameter. Wound swab examination revealed the presence of bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Secondary metabolites of flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and saponins help stimulate the regeneration of epithelial cells and tissues. The results for wound healing of 4% and 6% gel formulations were derived from maturation data on day 10.


1. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes care. 2017; 40 (Suplemen 1), S75

2. Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia. Pharmaceutical Care for Diabetes Mellitus.

3. Singh S, Pai DR, Yuhhui C. Diabetic foot ulcer–diagnosis and management. Clin Res Foot Ankle. 2013 Nov 7;1(3):120.

4. Waspadji S, Sukardji K, Octarina M. Dietary guidelines for diabetes mellitus. Jakarta: FKUI Publishing Center. 2009.

5. Lipsky BA, Berendt AR, Cornia PB, Pile JC, Peters EJ, Armstrong DG, Deery HG, Embil JM, Joseph WS, Karchmer AW, Pinzur MS. 2012 Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic foot infections. Clinical infectious diseases. 2012 Jun 15;54(12):e132-73.

6. Larjava H, editor. Oral wound healing: cell biology and clinical management. John Wiley & Sons; 2012 May 15.

7. Mallefet P, Dweck AC. Mechanisms involved in wound healing. Biomedical Scientist. 2008;52(7):609.

8. Fajar S DR. Antibacterial Activity Test of Ethanol Extract of Purple Sweet Potato Leaves (Ipomoea batatas Var Ayamurasaki) Against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacteria Using Agar Diffusion Method (Doctoral dissertation, Alauddin State Islamic University Makassar).

9. Kartika RW, Bedah B, Lung J. Chronic wound care with modern dressings. Chronic Wound Treatment With Modern Dressing. 2015 Jul 1;42(7):546-50.

10. Martin RM, Bachman MA. Colonization, infection, and the accessory genome of Klebsiella pneumonia. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 2018 Jan 22;8:4.

11. Kampf G, Löffler H, Gastmeier P. Hand hygiene for the prevention of nosocomial infections. Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. 2009 Oct;106(40):649.

12. Karvouniaris M, Makris D, Zakynthinos E. Community-associated Staphylococcus aureus infections: pneumonia. Microbiology Research. 2010 Oct;1(1):21-7.

13. Edy HJ, Parwanto ME. Utilization of the Tagetes erecta Linn plant. in health. Journal of Biomedicine and Health. 2019 Jun 30;2(2):77-80.

14. Parwanto ML. Efficcacy of Lantana camara Linn. leaf extracts ointment on dermal wound healing were infected with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2017 Mar;6(3):503-10.

15. Kumar V, Ahmed D, Gupta PS, Anwar F, Mujeeb M. Anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaves in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. BMC complementary and alternative medicine. 2013 Dec;13(1):1-9.

16. He Q, Venant N. Antioxidant power of phytochemicals from Psidium guajava leaf. Journal of Zhejiang University-Science A. 2004 Jun;5:676-83.

17. Hainil S, Mayefis D, Wahyuni R. Antioxidant Activity of Ethanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Senjuang Leaves (Melastoma malabathricum L) DPPH Method (2, 2-Diphenyl-1-Picrylhydrazyl). SEHATMAS: Scientific Journal of Public Health. 2023 Jan 30;2(1):35-42.

18. Sapitri A, Lara N, Sitorus P. Antibacterial Activity of Senduduk Leaf Ethanol Extract (Melastoma malabathricum L.) Against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus|| Antibacterial Activity Test of the Ethanol in Leaves Extract of Senduduk (Melastoma malabathricum L.) Against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Journal of Learning and Nuclear Biology. 2020 Oct 5;6(2):139-52.

19. Fijriati L, Maulana LH, Pudjono P. Antibacterial Activity of Guava Leaf Extract (Psidium guajava, L.,) with Ethanol and Chloroform Extraction on the Growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Pharmacy Civilization Journal. 2022 Jan 31;2(1):33-8.

20. Hainil S, Rachdiati H, Prawita D. Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Senduduk Leaves (Melastoma malabathricum L.). In2nd International Conference on Contemporary Science and Clinical Pharmacy 2021 (ICCSCP 2021) 2021 Nov 17 (pp. 211-213). Atlantis Press.

21. Simbolon RA, Halimatussakdiah H, Amna U. Test for Secondary Metabolite Compounds in Guava Leaf Extract (Psidium guajava L var. Pomifera) from Langsa City, Aceh. QUIMICA: Journal of Science and Applied Chemistry. 2021 Jul 9;3(1):12-8.

22. Harborne AJ. Phytochemical methods a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis. springer science & business media; 1998 Apr 30.

23. Pontoh FW, Sanger G, Kaseger BE, Wonggo D, Montolalu RI, Damongilala LJ, Makapedua DM. Phytochemical Content, Total Phenol Levels and Antioxidant Activity of Halymenia Durvillae Seaweed Extract. Fisheries Product Technology Media. 2019 Jul 11;7(3):62-7.

24. Teodhora T. Effect of Hpmc Concentration as Base of Ciplukan Extract Gel on Antibacterial Activity. Pharmasains: Scientific Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;7(2):75-82.

25. Seko M, Sabuna AC, Ngginak J. AJERAN LEAVES ETHANOL EXTRACT (Bidens pilosa L) AS AN ANTIBACTERIAL Staphylococcus aureus. JBIO: jurnal biosains (the journal of biosciences).;7(1):1-9.

26. Halim S, Girsang E, Ehrich IN, Napiah A. Effectivity of Gel Ethanolic Extract of Senggani Leaves (Melastoma candidum D. Don) in Increasing the Number of Fibroblast Cells and Thickness of Collagen Fibers Against Socket Wound after Tooth Extraction on Male White Rats. Eff. Gel Ethanolic Extr. Senggani Leaves (Melastoma candidum D. Don) Increasing Number Fibroblast Cells Thick. Collagen Fibers Against Socket Wound after Tooth Extr. Male White Rats. 2019;60:159-73.

27. Yamanaka F, Hatano T, Ito H, Taniguchi S, Takahashi E, Okamoto K. Antibacterial effects of guava tannins and related polyphenols on Vibrio and Aeromonas species. Natural Product Communications. 2008 May;3(5):1934578X0800300509.

28. Chiari-Andréo BG, Trovatti E, Marto J, Almeida-Cincotto MG, Melero A, Corrêa MA, Chiavacci LA, Ribeiro H, Garrigues T, Isaac VL. Guava: phytochemical composition of a potential source of antioxidants for cosmetic and/or dermatological applications. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017 Jun 22;53.

29. Anbu J, Jisha P, Varatharajan R, Muthappan M. Antibacterial and wound healing activities of melastoma malabathricum linn. African Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2008;2(2).

30. Liana ID, ASTIRIN OP, NUGRAHENI ER. Antimicrobial activity of the fraction of senggani leaf methanol extract (Melastoma candidum) against Staphylococcus aureus and Sa. typhimurium and thin layer chromatography profile of the most active fraction. Asian Journal of Natural Product Biochemistry. 2015 Aug 9;13(2):66-77.

31. Susanti, D., & Rasadah, M. A. (2007). Anti-inflammatory Action of Components from Melastoma malabathricum. Pharmaceutical biology, 45(5), 372-375.

32. Yaun EA, Vasquez BA. Antibacterial activity of formulated Psidium guajava (guava) hand sanitizer gel on Staphylococcus aureus. University of the Visayas-Journal of Research. 2017 Dec 18;11(1):1-6.

33. Susanty S, Yudhistirani SA. The Effect of Binahong Leaf Extraction Time (Anredera cordifolia (Tenore) Steenis) on the Inhibitory Ability of Escherichia coli Bacteria for Making Hand Sanitizer. CONVERSION JOURNAL. 2018 May 21;7(1):10.

34. Putri MA, Saputra ME, Amanah IN, Fabiani VA. Test of Physical Properties of Hand Sanitizer Gel Preparations of Pucuk Idat (Cratoxylum glaucum) Leaf Extract. InProceedings of National Colloquium Research and Community Service 2019 Sep 18 (Vol. 3, pp. 39-41).

35. Kurnawan E. The effect of a combination ointment of wake-waking leaf extract (Coleus amboinicus L.) and gotu kola (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban) herb extract on excision wound healing in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia rats. Journal of PSPD FK Tanjungpura University Students. 2014;3(1).

36. Baranoski S, Ayello EA. Wound care essentials: Practice principles. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2008.

37. Bryant R, Nix D. Acute and chronic wounds: current management concepts. Elsevier Health Sciences; 2015 Nov 24.

38. Negara RF, Ratnawati R, Dewi D. The Effect of Treatment of Second Degree Burns Using Ethanol Extract of Betel Leaves (Piper betle Linn.) on Increasing Granulation Tissue Thickness in Strain Male White Rats (Rattus norvegicus). FKUB Health Magazine. 2014 Jun;1(2):86-93.

39. Che Zain MS, Lee SY, Sarian MN, Fakurazi S, Shaari K. In vitro wound healing potential of flavonoid c-glycosides from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) leaves on 3t3 fibroblast cells. Antioxidants. 2020 Apr 17;9(4):326

40. Proença, C. dkk., 2017. α-Glucosidase inhibition by flavonoids: an in vitro and in silico structure–activity relationship study, Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 32, no. 1, hal. 1216–1228

41. Khotimah SN, Muhtadi A. SOME PLANTS THAT CONTAIN ACTIVE ANTI-INFLAMMATORY COMPOUNDS. Pharmacy. 2016;14(2):28-40.

42. Sieniawska, E., 2015. Activities of tannins-From In Vitro Studies to ClinicalTrials, Natural Product Communications, vol. 10, no. 11, hal. 1877–1884

43. Sukmawati S, Yuliet Y, Hardani R. Anti-inflammatory activity test of the ethanol extract of Ambon banana leaves (Musa paradisiaca L.) against carrageenan-induced white rats (Rattus norvegicus L.). Galenika Journal of Pharmacy (e-Journal). 2015 Oct 1;1(2):126-32.

44. Che Omar SN, Ong Abdullah J, Khairoji KA, Chin Chin S, Hamid M. Effects of flower and fruit extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on growth of pathogenic bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;2013.

45. Biswas B, Rogers K, McLaughlin F, Daniels D, Yadav A. Antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of guava (Psidium guajava L.) on two gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. International journal of microbiology. 2013 Oct 20;2013.

46. Desiyana LS, Husni MA, Zhafira S. Test the effectiveness of the gel preparation of the ethyl acetate fraction of guava leaves (Psidium guajava Linn) for healing open wounds in mice (Mus musculus). natural journal. 2016 Sep 19;16(2):23-32.

47. ANTARISKA T, PRANITASARI N, SUKMANA J, PASARIBU IA. Effect of Alginate from Brown Algae (Sargassum sp) on Diabetic Mellitus Wound Healing in Streptozotocin-Induced Rats. Hang Tuah Medical Journal. 2022 May 31;19(2):281-301.

48. Suparwati S, Fradianto I. IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA IN INFECTED DIABETIC FOOT WOUNDS: LITERATURE REVIEW. BIMIKI (Indonesian Nursing Student Scientific Periodical). 2022 Jun 30;10(1):35-43.

49. Chaturvedi S, Agrawal S, Garg A, Rastogi V. Potential of Nanoencapsulated Quercetin Topical Formulations in the Management of Diabetic Foot Ulcer. Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2022 Dec 28:1-8.

50. Abid HM, Hanif M, Mahmood K, Aziz M, Abbas G, Latif H. Wound-healing and antibacterial activity of the quercetin–4-formyl phenyl boronic acid complex against bacterial pathogens of diabetic foot ulcer. ACS omega. 2022 Jul 8;7(28):24415-22.
How to Cite
REFDANITA, Refdanita et al. Diabetic Wound Healing and Antimicrobial Activities of Gels Melastoma malabathricum L. and Psidium guajava L. in Sprague Dawley Rats. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 21, n. 1, p. 97-106, apr. 2023. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <http://jifi.farmasi.univpancasila.ac.id/index.php/jifi/article/view/1390>. Date accessed: 10 june 2023. doi: https://doi.org/10.35814/jifi.v21i1.1390.