Formulation of Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Gel From Mulberry Root Extract (Morus alba L.) as Whitening Agent using Zebrafish Modelling

  • Faizatun Faizatun Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Pancasila, Jakarta, 12640, Indonesia
  • Irene Intan Permata Murti Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Pancasila, Jakarta, 12640, Indonesia


Mulberry is a plant that has been shown to be effective as a whitening agent. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of mulberry root extract (MRE) and its nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) extracts in terms of their ability to lighten skin tone by using zebrafish as a model. NLC were formulated into gel preparations. The whitening effect of MRE and NLC was evaluated, and the melanin content of the extracts was found to be the result of the evaluation. Based on the results of morphological observations, a decrease in melanin levels was seen in the eye. In the mulberry root extract, the melanin level decreased with an increase in the concentration of the mulberry root extract. In the NLC of mulberry root extract, a decrease in melanin levels was obtained at an increased NLC concentration of mulberry root extract. It can be concluded that mulberry root NLC has the ability to act as a whitening agent, which is distinguished by the reduction of melanin content.


1. Chang TS, Ding HY, Lin HC. Identifying 6,7,4′-trihydroxyisoflavone as a potent tyrosinase inhibitor. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2005;69:1999–2001.

2. Uyen LDP, Nguyen DH, Kim EK. Mechanism of skin pigmentation. Biotechnol Bioprocess Eng. 2008;13:383–95.

3. Seo SY, Sharma VK, Sharma N. Mushroom tyrosinase: Recent prospects. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:2837– 53.

4. Arung ET, Shimizu K, Kondo R. Inhibitory effect of artocarpanone from Artocarpus heterophyllus on melanin biosynthesis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29:1966–9.

5. Faizatun, Anwar E, Djajadisasra J, Mardliyati E. The study of antioxidant and antityrosinase activity of extract from mulberry root (Morus alba L.). J Pharm Sci Res. 2017;9:2004–8.

6. Salas MF, Porras PC, Vargas MJ, Molina JA, Rojas MC, Redondo GL. Nanotechnological applications in dermocosmetics. European J Pharm Res. 2023;3(1):1- 7.

7. Hou Y, Liu X, Qin Y, Hou Y, Hou J, Wu Q, Xu W. Zebrafish as model organisms for toxicological evaluations in the field of food science. Compre¬hensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2023;22(5):3481-505.

8. Elworthy S, Lister JA, Carney TJ, Raible DW, Kelsh RN. Transcriptional regulation of mitfa accounts for the sox10 requirement in zebrafish melanophore develop¬ment. Development. 2003;130:2809–18.

9. Choi TY, Kim JH, Ko DH, Kim CH, Hwang JS, Ahn S, et al. Zebrafish as a new model for phenotype-based screening of melanogenic regulatory compounds. Pig¬ment Cell Res. 2007;20:120–7.

10. Djamil R, Zaidan S, Rahmat D, Pratami DK, Hakim F. Nanoemulsion of okra fruit extract as antidiabetic treatment. Int J Appl Pharm. 2020;12:138–42.

11. Lelina FMU, Fuentes RG. Cassia alata leaf methanolic extracts decreased melanin pigmentation in Zebrafish. Phil J Nat Sci. 2018;23:41-7.

12. Djamil R, Pratami DK, Putri FA, Octavia TB. Determination of quality parameters and test antioxidant activities of 70% ethanol extract of seroja leaves (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.). Int J App Pharm. 2021;13:30-3.

13. Faizatun F, Gangga E, Anindita S, Martati T, Mifta¬hurrohmah N. Formulation of NLC gel from callus mulberry leaf extract induced by NAA and BAP. J Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia. 2020;18:123–9.

14. Fadhila M, Mun’im A, Jufri M. A preparation, characterization, and in vitro skin penetration of Morus alba root extract nanoemulsion. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2019;12:292-6.

15. Surini S, Diandra DM. Formulation of mulberry leaf (Morus alba L.) Extract hydrogel beads using cross-linked pectin. Int J App Pharm. 2017;90:159-62.

16. Wu X, Li L, Shi W, Gong Q, Ma H. Near‐infrared fluo¬rescent probe with new recognition moiety for specific detection of tyrosinase activity: design, synthesis, and application in living cells and zebrafish. Angew Chemie Int Ed. 2016;55:14728–32.

17. Ting Y, Hu YT, Hu JY, Chang WC, Huang Q, Hsieh SC. Nanoemulsified adlay bran oil reduces tyrosinase activity and melanin synthesis in B16F10 cells and zebrafish. Food Sci Nutr. 2019;7:3216–23.

18. Hu S, Wang T, Zou J, Zhou Z, Lu C, Nie J, et al. Highly chemoselective fluorescent probe for the detection of tyrosinase in living cells and zebrafish model. Sensors Actuators B Chem. 2019;283:873–80.

19. Chen Y-M, Su W-C, Li C, Shi Y, Chen Q-X, Zheng J, et al. Anti-melanogenesis of novel kojic acid derivatives in B16F10 cells and zebrafish. Int J Biol Macromol. 2019;123:723–31.

20. Cheng M-C, Lee T-H, Chu Y-T, Syu L-L, Hsu S-J, Cheng C-H, et al. Melanogenesis inhibitors from the Rhizoma of Ligusticum sinense in B16-F10 melanoma cells in vitro and zebrafish in vivo. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19: 3994.
How to Cite
FAIZATUN, Faizatun; MURTI, Irene Intan Permata. Formulation of Nanostructured Lipid Carrier Gel From Mulberry Root Extract (Morus alba L.) as Whitening Agent using Zebrafish Modelling. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 21, n. 2, p. 209-214, oct. 2023. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 25 may 2024. doi: