Spray-gel formulations of Cantigi extract and Cantigi extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles as antioxidant

  • Kosasih Kosasih Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Pancasila, Jakarta, 12640, Indonesia
  • Nesshi Alifiya Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Pancasila, Jakarta, 12640, Indonesia

Abstract

Spray-gel formulations may contain natural antioxidants like plant extracts. They can reduce free radicals and prevent premature aging. This research aims to study spray-gel formulations using Cantigi extracts and Cantigi extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles as antioxidants. Extract preparation used the maceration method concentrated by a rotavapor and characterized for specific and nonspecific parameters. Antioxidant activity analysis of extract, nanoparticles, and formulations used the DPPH method. Gelatin nanoparticle synthesis was done using the nanoprecipitation method and then characterized for particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, aldimine linkage formation, and morphology. Two spray-gel formulations were manufactured (F1 contained the extract, and F2 contained the nanoparticles)  and evaluated for one month for organoleptics, homogeneity, viscosity, flow properties, spray pattern, pH, and antioxidant activity tests. The extract and nanoparticles meet all parameters. The antioxidant activities (IC50) are Cantigi extract of 17.4 ppm, gelatin nanoparticles of 33.6 ppm, F1 of 60.6 ppm, and F2 of 99.5 ppm. After the stability study, the spray-gel formulation characteristics were: Organoleptics, homogeneity, homogeneity, and viscosity complied (F1 and F2); flow property showed plastic thixotrophy properties (F1 and F2); spray pattern showed best at 20 cm distance (F1 and F2); pH complied (F1 and F2); and IC50 of F1 was 63.0 ppm while F2 was 103.3 ppm. Conclusions were that the spray-gel formulations (F1 and F2) complied with the standards and were stable during the storage time. However, F1 has more potent antioxidant activity than the F2. 

References

[1] Umar AK, Butarbutar M, Sriwidodo S, Wathoni N. Film-forming sprays for topical drug delivery. Drug Des Dev Ther. 2020; 14: 2909–25. PMID: 32884234 PMCID: PMC7434377 https://doi.org/10.2147/DDDT.S256666

[2] Leichtnam M-L, Rolland H, Wüthrich P, Guy RH. Impact of anti-nucleants on transdermal delivery of testosterone from a spray. J Pharm Sci. 2007; 96(1): 84–92. https://doi.org/ 10.1002/jps.20670.

[3] Tan X, Feldman SR, Chang J, Balkrishnan R. Topical drug delivery systems in dermatology: a review of patient adherence issues. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2012; 9(10): 1263–1271. https://doi.org/10.1517/17425247.2012.711756.

[4] Saingam W, Chankana N, Madaka F, Sueree L, Homchuam S. Formulation development of topical film-forming spray from Piper nigrum L. Thai J Pharm Sci. 2018; 42: 93–97. https://doi.org/10.1134/ S0965545X11100087

[5] Geh KJ, Stelzl A, Gröne A, Wagner L, Förster B, Winter G. Development of a sprayable hydrogel formulation for the skin application of therapeutic antibodies. Eur J Pharm Biopharm. 2019;142:123–132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2019.06.015

[6] Ranade S, Bajaj A, Londhe V, Babul N, Kao D. Fabrication of topical metered-dose film-forming sprays for pain management. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2017;100:132–141. https://doi.org /10.1016/j.ejps.2017.01.004

[7] Akbar MRPK, Hanik FPM, Shabrina A, Zulfa E. Formulasi spray gel ekstrak etanol biji kedelai (Glycine max) sebagai kosmetik tabir surya. JIFFK. 2020; 17(2): 44-50. http:// doi.org/10.31942/jiffk.v17i2.4067

[8] Pleguezuelos-Beltran P, Galvez-Martin P, Nieto-Garcia D, Marchal JA, Lopez-Ruiz E. Advances in spray products for skin regeneration. Bioact. 2022; 16: 187-203. PMID: 35386328 PMCID: PMC8965724 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioactmat.2022.02.023

[9] Salvioni L, et al. The emerging role of nanotechnology in skin care. Adv Colloid Interface Sci. 2021; 293: 102437. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2021.102437.

[10] Gupta V, et al. Nanotechnology in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals—A Review of latest advancements. Gels. 2022; 8: 173. https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8030173.

[11] Mumtaz T, Ahmed N, Hassan N, Badshah M, Khan S, Rehman A. Voriconazole nanoparticles-based film-forming spray: An efficient approach for potential treatment of topical fungal infections. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol. 2022; 70: 102973. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jddst.2021.102973

[12] Kosasih K, Redja IW, Farida Y. IAI SPECIAL EDITION: In vitro anti-aging activity of ethanol extract of Cantigi (Vaccinium varingiaefolium Blume Miq.) leaf and the extract loaded gelatin nanoparticles. Pharm Educ. 2022; 22(2): 151–155. https://doi.org/10.46542/ pe.2022.222.151155

[13] Kemenkes RI. Farmakope Herbal Indonesia, Edisi II. Jakarta: Kemenkes RI; 2017. https://repository. kemkes.go.id/book/392.

[14] Bitwell C, Indra SS, Lukec C, Kakoma MK. A review of modern and conventional extraction techniques and their applications for extracting phytochemicals from plants. Sci Afr. 2023; 19: e01585. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sciaf.2023.e01585

[15] Dubale S, Kebebe D, Zeynudin A, Abdissa N, Suleman S. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity evaluation of selected medicinal plants in Ethiopia. J Exp Pharmacol. 2023; 15: 51–62. https://doi.org/10.2147/JEP.S379805. PMCID: PMC9922502. PMID: 36789235.

[16] Madhuranga HDT, Samarakoon DNAW. Advancing in vitro antioxidant activity assessment: A comprehensive methodological review and improved approaches for DPPH, FRAP, and H2O2. Nat Ayurvedic Med. 2023; 7(4): 000431 https://doi.org/10.23880/jonam-16000431

[17] Khan SA. Mini review: Opportunities and challenges in the techniques used for preparation of gelatin nanoparticles. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2020; 33(1): 221-228. https://doi.org/10.36721/ PJPS. 2020. 33.1.REG.221-228.1

[18] Milano F, Masi A, Madaghiele M, Sannino A, Salvatore L, Gallo N. Review: Current trends in gelatin-based drug delivery systems. Pharmaceutics. 2023; 15: 1499. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/ pharmaceutics15051499.

[19] Besheli NH, et al. Unraveling the formation of gelatin nanospheres by means of desolvation. Nano Lett. 2023; 23: 11091−11098. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c03459

[20] Shiehzadeh F, Mohebi D, Chavoshian O, Daneshmand S. Formulation, characterization, and optimization of a topical gel containing tranexamic acid to prevent superficial bleeding: In vivo and in vitro evaluations. Turk J Pharm Sci. 2023; 20(4): 261-269. https://doi.org/10.4274/ tjps.galenos.2022.60687

[21] Sharma A, Kaur J, Goyal A. Carbopol 940 Vs carbopol 904: A better polymer for hydrogel formulation. Res J Pharm Technol. 2021; 14(3): 1561-1564. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00275.4

[22] Bakhrushina EO, Shumkova MM, Sergienko FS, Novozhilova EV, Demina NB. Spray film-forming systems as promising topical in situ systems: A review. Saudi Pharm J. 2023; 31: 154-169. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jsps.2022.11.014

[23] Monagas M, et al. Understanding plant-to-extract ratios in botanical extracts. Front Pharmacol. 2022; 13:981978. https://doi.org/10.3389/ fphar.2022.981978

[24] Kosasih K, Sumaryono W, Supriyono A, Mudhakir M. Cytotoxic effect of Cantigi [Vaccinium varingiaefolium (Blume) Miq.] extracts on T47D cells. AIP Conf Proc. 2022; 2563: 050014. https://doi.org/10.1063/ 5.0103147

[25] Bilati U, Allémann E, Doelker E. Development of a nanoprecipitation method intended for the entrapment of hydrophilic drugs into nanoparticles. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2005; 24(1): 67-75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejps.2004.09.011

[26] Kosasih K, Sumaryono W, Mudhakir D, Supriyono A, Christian YE, Debora R. Effects of gelatin and glutaraldehyde concentrations on characteristics of Cantigi (Vaccinium varingiaefolium Miq.) extract loaded gelatin nanoparticles as antioxidant. J Halal Prod Res (JHPR). 2021; 4(1): 1–7. https://doi.org/10.20473/jhpr.vol.4-issue.1.1-7

[27] Ridolfo R, Tavakoli S, Junnuthula V, Williams DS, Urtti A, van Hest JCM. Exploring the impact of morphology on the properties of biodegradable nanoparticles and their diffusion in complex biological medium. Biomacromolecules. 2021; 22(1): 126–133. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.0c00726
Published
2024-04-30
How to Cite
KOSASIH, Kosasih; ALIFIYA, Nesshi. Spray-gel formulations of Cantigi extract and Cantigi extract-loaded gelatin nanoparticles as antioxidant. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 22, n. 1, p. 38-44, apr. 2024. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <http://jifi.farmasi.univpancasila.ac.id/index.php/jifi/article/view/1586>. Date accessed: 21 june 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.35814/jifi.v22i1.1586.