Effectiveness of Anti-Acne Cream of Sappan Wood (Caesalpinia sappan) Against Propionibacterium acnes on Rabbit Skin



Sappan Wood extract (Caesalpinia sappan) is potential as an anti-acne due to its ability as an antioxidant, lipase inhibitor and anti Propionibacterium acnes. The potency is influenced by the quality of simplicia and extracts. To elevate the application, semisolid dosage formulations were made in cream forms using a standardized extract of Sappan Wood. Creams were formulated with the same base composition but different extract concentrations (range of 1-10%). In vivo assay were carried out on rabbit skin induced by intradermal injection of P. acnes. Sappan Wood was collected from Semarang and the resulting extract has met the Materia Medika Indonesia requirement with brazilin level in extract of 224.675 mg / g. In vivo tests showed that all Sappan Wood extract formulations have potency as anti-acne as indicated by curative percentage for 15 days were significantly different from the formula base. Curative effect of all formula were not significantly different with the Mediklin® positive control. Formula with the lowest concentration of the extract was the most effective and efficient with the curative percentage of more than 96% in 15 days.


1. Brown SK and Shalita AR. Acne vulgaris. The Lancet Journal. 1998. 351(9119):1871-6.
2. Nourin K and Ballard CJ. Laser therapy for acne. Clinical Dermatology Journal. Elsevier. 2006. 24(1):26-32.
3. Katzman M and Logan AC. Acne vulgaris: Nutritional factors may be influencing psychological sequelae. Med Hypotheses. 2007. 69(5):1080-4.
4. Strauss JS, Krowchuk DP, Leyden JJ, Lucky AW, Shalita AR, Siegfried AC, et al. Guidelines of care for Acne vulgaris management. Journal of American Academy of Dermatology. 2007. 56:651-63.
5. Sangat HM, Zuhud EAM, Damayanti EK. Dictionary of disease and Indonesian medicinal plants (Etnofitomedika I). Jakarta: Yayasan Obor; 2000. 41-50.
6. Batubara I, Mitsunaga T, Ohashi H. Screening antiacne potency of Indonesian medicinal plants: Antibacterial, lipase inhibition and antioxidant activities. J Wood Sci. 2009. 55(3):230-5.
7. Batubara I, Mitsunaga T, Ohashi H. Brazilin from Caesalpinia sappan wood as an anti-acne agent. J Wood Sci. 2010. 56:77-81.
8. Batubara I, Rafi M, Sadiah S, Zaim MA, Indriani S, Mitsunaga T. Brazilin content, antioxidative and lipase inhibition effect of Sappan wood (Caesalpinia Sappan) from Indonesia. Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. 2010. 4(10):50-5.
9. Anonim. Materia medika Indonesia. Jilid I. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 1977. 29-33.
10. Anonim. Monografi ekstrak tumbuhan obat Indonesia. Jakarta: Departemen Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2004. 90-2.
11. Cowan ST and Steel KJ. Cowan & Steel’s manual for the identification of medical bacteria. 2nd Ed. London: Cambridge University Press; 1974. 127-68.
12. Jawetz E, Melnick GE, Adelberg CA. Mikrobiologi kedokteran. Edisi I. Diterjemahkan oleh Penerjemah Bagian Mikrobiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Airlangga. Surabaya: Salemba Medika; 2001. 24-47.
13. Murray PR, Baron EJ, Jorgensen JH, Landry ML, Pfaller MA. Manual of clinical microbiology. 9th Ed. Washington DC: ASM Press; 2007. 96-156.
14. Peter HA and Sneath. Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Vol. 2. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1986. 206-59.
15. Batubara I, Mitsunaga T, Kotsuka S, Rafi M, Sadiah S. Kemampuan secang dalam menurunkan produksi TNF-α: potensinya sebagai antijerawat. Jurnal Tumbuhan Obat Indonesia. 2009. 2(2):67-71.
How to Cite
SA’DIAH, SITI et al. Effectiveness of Anti-Acne Cream of Sappan Wood (Caesalpinia sappan) Against Propionibacterium acnes on Rabbit Skin. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 2, p. 175-181, sep. 2013. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <http://jifi.farmasi.univpancasila.ac.id/index.php/jifi/article/view/214>. Date accessed: 16 apr. 2024.