Synthesis and Testing of Antimalarial Activity of 2,4-Diphenyl-1,10-Phenanthroline Compounds



Malaria is still the main health problems in subtropical and tropical countries. There are 105 countries in the world at malaria endemic and more than 500 million cases or more than 2.7 million deaths from malaria each year. The traditional remedies are no longer effective and the incidence of malarial by P. falciparum, the most dangerous species of parasite, continues to grow, while some traditional drugs such as chloroquine has been resistance. Synthesis of 2,4-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline [5] compounds with benzaldehyde [1], acetophenone [2], t-calcone [3], 8-aminoquinoline [4] as starting material through three steps has been carried out. The results of all steps of the reaction were obtained compounds of [5], (1)-N methyl-7,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate [6] and (1)-N-ethyl-7,9-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthrolinium sulfate [7]. The results of antiplasmodial activity in vitro testing of the derivatives on chloroquine resistant P. falciparum FCR3 indicated that compound [7] has higher antimalarial activity (IC5O = 0.06±0.05 µM) than the activity of [6] compound (ICSO = 1.27±O.97 µM) and [5] compound (1C50 = 1.66±0.70 µM). Results of similar in vitro testing on chloroquine resistant P. falciparum D10 strain indicated that [7] compound has higher antimalarial activity (IC50 = 0.04±0.04 uM) than the activity of [5] compound (IC50 = 1.13±0.30 µM) and [6] compound (ICSO = 0.81±0.06 µM).


1. Zein U. Penanganan Terkini Malaria P. falciparum, e-USU Repository. Medan: Universitas Sumatera Utara; 2005.

2. Sach J and Malaney P. The Economic and Social Burden of Malaria, Nature. 2002. 415:680-5.

3. Tatu U, Jain S and Priya P. Whither genome research: Of man, mosquito and malaria, J Biosci. 2005. 30(5):567-71.

4. Mahmoudi N, Ortiz JVJ, Ciceron L, Galvez J, Mazier D, Danis M, DerouinF and Domenech RG. Identification of New Antimalarial Drugs by Linear Discriminant Analysis and Topological Virtual Screening, J Antimicrobial Chemothrapy. 2006. 57:489-97.

5. Ashley E, McGready R, Proux S and Nosten F. Review, Malaria, Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2006. 4:159-73.

6. Zarranz B, Jaso A, Lima LM, Aldana I, Monge A, Maurel S. Antiplasmodial activity of 3-trifluoromethyl-2-carbonquuinoxaline-di-N-oxide derivatives, Brazilian J. of Pharrn. Sci. 2006. 42(3):357-61.

7. D’Alessandro U and Buttiens H. History and importance of antimalarial drug resistance (abstract). Tropical Medicine International Health. 2001. 6(11):845-8.

8. Payne D. Spread of chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum. Parasitol. Today. 1987. 3(8):241-6.

9. Wensdorfer WH and Payne D. The dynamics of drugs resistance in P. falciparum. Pharmac Ther. 1991. 50:95-121.

10. Basco LK, Rugeri C and Le Bras J. Molecules antipaludique. Paris: Editions Masson;1994.

11. World Health Organization. Assessment of therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial drugs for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Geneva: WHO; 1997.

12. Desjardin RE, Caniield CJ, Haynes JD and Chulay JD. Quantitative assessment of antimalarial activity in Vitro by a semi automated microdulation technique. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 1979. 16:710-8.

13. Yapi AD, Mustofa M, Valentin A, Chezal JM, Chavignon O and Chaillot C. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity of Derivatives of 1,10-phenanthroline Framework, Arch Pharm Chem Life Sci. 2006. 339:201-6.

14. Yapi AD, Mustofa M, Valentin A, Chavignon O, Teulade JC, Mallie M. New Potensial Antimalarial Agents: Synthesis and Biological Activities of Original Diazaanalogs of Phenanthroline J Chem Pharm Bull. 2000. 48(12):1886-9.

15. Trager W and Jensen JB. Human malaria parasite in continuous culture, Science. 1976. 193:673-5.
How to Cite
HADANU, RUSLIN; MUSTAFA, MUSTAFA; NAZUDIN, NAZUDIN. Synthesis and Testing of Antimalarial Activity of 2,4-Diphenyl-1,10-Phenanthroline Compounds. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. 1-7, apr. 2012. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 21 june 2024.