Positive Impact of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe pinnata on Anti-Smith Antibody and T Reg in Lupus Mice
Kalanchoe pinnata (Lmk) Pers is a medicinal plant that has many activities, such as antioxidant, anti-infl ammation and immunosuppressant activities. Based on our previous study, aqueous extract of this plant leaves has a repairing eff ect on lupus nephritis model. The expected active compounds are flavonoids. Those compounds are separated in the ethyl acetate fraction. Therefore, this study observed the activity of the ethyl acetate fraction of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lmk) Pers on reducing the level of Anti- Smith autoantibody and the regulation function of CD4+CD25+ T reg in lupus mice. The experimental groups were a negative control group that received placebo, ethyl acetate fraction of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lmk) Pers (EF-KP) group and a positive control group that received cyclophosphamide. The anti-Sm level was measured by using indirect ELISA. The spleen cells were prepared for CD4+CD25+ T reg assay using fl ow cytometry. The result of this experiment was a reduction of anti-Sm antibody level. The decrease was suffi cient to stabilize lupus condition. The fl ow cytometry assay results showed the increase in the relative percentage of CD4+CD25+ T reg. This function can inhibit the reactivity of autoantigens, so it prevents tissue and organ damage from lupus. However, further research is needed to observe the complete mechanism.
2. Gupta R, Lohani M, Arora S. Anti-inflammatory activity of the leaf extracts/fractions of Bryophyllum pinnatum. Int J Pharm Sci Rev & Res. 2010.3(1):16-8.
3. Ferreira RT, Coutinho MAS, Carmo Malvar D, Costa EA, Florentino IF, Costa SS, et al. Mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive, antiedematogenic, and anti-infl ammatory activity of the main fl avonoid from Kalanchoe pinnata. Evid Base Compl Alternative Med. 2014. Article ID 429256, 8 pages.
4. Cruz EA, Da-Silva SAG, Muzitano MF, Silva PMR, Costa SS, Rossi-Bergmann B. Immunomodulatory pretreatment with Kalanchoe pinnata extract and its quercitrin fl avonoid eff ectively protects mice against anaphylactic shock. Int Immunopharmacol. 8:1616-21.
5. Bergmann R, Costa SS, Borges MBS, Silva SA, Noleto GR, Souza MLM. Immunosuppressive eff ect of the aqueous extract of Kalanchoe pinnata in mice. Phytotherapy Res. 1994.8:399-402.
6. Coutinho MA, Muzitano MF, Cruz EA, Bergonzi MC, Kaiser CR, Tinoco LW, Bilia AR, Vincieric FF, Rossi-Bergmann B, Costa SS. Flowers from Kalanchoe pinnata are a rich source of T cell-suppressive fl avonoids. Nat Product Commun. 2012.7(2):175-8.
7. Yu C, Gershwin ME, Chang C. Diagnostic criteria for systemic lupus erythematosus: A critical review. J of Autoimmun. 2014.5:48-59. 8. Reeves HW, Lee PY, Weinstein JS, Satoh M, Lu L. Induction of autoimmunity by pristane and other naturally occurring hydrocarbons. Trends in Immunol. 2009.30(9):455–64.
9. Rottman JB, Willis CR. Mouse models of systemic lupus erythematosus reveal a complex pathogenesis. Vet Pathol. 2010.47(4):664-76.
10. Scheinecker C, Bonelli M, Smolen JS. Pathogenetic aspects of systemic lupus erythematosus with an emphasis on regulatory T cells. J Autoimmun. 2010.35:269-75.
11. Nascimento LB, Leal-Costa MV, Coutinho MA, Moreira Ndos S, Lage CL, Barbi Ndos S, et al. Increased antioxidant activity and changes in phenolic profile of Kalanchoe pinnata (Lamarck) Persoon (Crassulaceae) specimens grown under supplemental blue light. Photochem and Photobiol. 2013.89(2): 391-9.
12. Satoh M, Kuroda Y, Yoshida H, Behney KM, Mizutani A, Akaogi J, et al. Induction of lupus autoantibodies by adjuvants. J Autoimmun. 2003.2:1–9.
13. Pawar RD, Goilav B, Xia Y, Zhuang H, Herlitz L, Reeves WH, Putterman C. Serum autoantibodies in pristane-induced lupus are regulated by neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Clin Immunol. 2014.154:49–65.
14. Calvani N, Satoh M, Croker BP, Reeves WH, Richards HB. Nephritogenic autoantibodies but absence of nephritis in Il-12p35–defi cient mice with pristaneinduced lupus. Kidney Int. 2003.64:897–905.
15. Rifa’i M. Protective eff ect of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells on mice model of rheumatoid arthritis. Annales Bogorienses. 2011.15(1):48-57.
16. Qarni UA, Rifa’i M. Uji aktifitas biologis fraksi etanol daun sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata) terhadap perubahan kuantitatif sel T regulator pada mencit BALB/c (Mus musculus). Jurnal Biotropika. 2013.1(5):15-21.
17. Muzitano MF, Bergonzi MC, Melo GOD, Lage CLS, Bilia AR, et al. Infl uence of conditions, season of collection and extraction method on the content of antileishmanial fl avonoids from Kalanchoe pinnata. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011.133:132-7.
18. Wallace DC and Hahn BH. Dub ois’s lupu serythematosus and related syndromes. New York: Elsevier Saunder; 2013:237-51.
19. Satoh M, Reeves WH, Induction of lupus-associated injection of pristane. J Exp Med. 1994.180(6):23-41.
20. Leiss H, Niederreiter B, Bandur T, Schwarzecker B, Steiner G, et al. Pristane-induced lupus as a model of human lupus arthritis: evolvement of autoantibodies, internal organ and joint inflammation. Lupus. 2013.22:778–92.
21. Amelsfort JM, Jacobs KM, Bijlsma JW, Lafeber FP, Taams LS. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells in rheumatoid arthritis. Differences in the presence, phenotype, and function between peripheral blood and synovial fl uid. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2004.50:2775-85.
22. Bleesing MR, Brown SE, Straus JK, Siegel MD, Johnson M. Immunophenotypic profi les in families with autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome. Blood. 2001.98(8):2466-73.
23. Chatenoud LB, Salomon, Bluestone JA. Suppressor T cells-they’re back and critical for regulation of autoimmunity. Immunol Rev. 2001.182:149-63.
24. Chen W, Jin N, Hardegen KJ, Lei I, Marinos. Conversion of peripheral CD4+CD25+ naive T cells to CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells by TGF-beta induction of transcription factor Foxp3. J Exp Med. 2003.198:1875-86.
25. Malek TR, Bayer AR. Tolerance, not immunity, crucially depends on IL-2. Nat Rev Immunol. 2004. 4:665-74.
26. Seddon B, Mason D. The third function of the thymus. Immunol. 2001.21:95-9.
27. Wan Y, Flavell RA. Identifying Foxp3-expressing suppressor T cells with a bicistronic reporter. Proc Natl. Acad Sci. 2005.102:5126–31.
All articles in Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia are an open-access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted non-commercial used, distribution and reproduction in any medium.
This licence applies to Author(s) and Public Reader means that the users mays :
copy and redistribute the article in any medium or format
remix, transform, and build upon the article (eg.: to produce a new research work and, possibly, a new publication)
If you remix, transform, or build upon the article, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original.
- NO ADDITIONAL RESTRICTIONS:
You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits.
It does however mean that when you use it you must:
- ATTRIBUTION: You must give appropriate credit to both the Author(s) and the journal, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use.
You may not:
- NONCOMMERCIAL: You may not use the article for commercial purposes.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.