Antidepressant Activity of Some Fractions of The Basil Leaves [Ocimum Basilicum (L)] on The Swiss Webster Male Mice

  • Hendy Suhendy Institute of Health Science Bakti Tunas Husada
  • Muharam Priatna Institute of Health Science Bakti Tunas Husada
  • Yedy Purwandi Sukmawan Institute of Health Science Bakti Tunas Husada


Objectives : Determine the antidepressant activity of some fractions of the leaves of Ocimum basilicum L

Methods : The experimental methods are using Force Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test. The experiment was divided into seven groups. Negative control group (CMC 1 %), Positive control group (fluoxetine 0,052 mg/20 g BW of mice), test I group (fraction of n-hexane 50 mg/Kg BW), test II group (fraction of ethyl acetate 50 mg/Kg BW), test III group (fraction of ethanol 50 mg/Kg BW), test IV group (combination of cyproheptadine 0,0208 mg/20 g BW of mice and fluoxetine 0,052 mg/20 g BW of mice) and test V group (combination of cyproheptadine 0,0208 mg/20 g BW of mice and fraction of ethyl acetate 50 mg/Kg BW).

Result : The Force Swimming Test and Tail Suspension Test showed the same result that ethyl acetate fraction was given significant difference (p<0,05) in immobilization time reduction compared to negative control and has a better immobility reduction time than other groups. Added on cyproheptadine to fluoxetine and ethyl acetate fraction groups showed an increased in immobilization time compared to fluoxetine and ethyl acetate fraction alone.

Conclusion : Ethyl acetate fraction showed better antidepressant activity than another fraction through the role of serotonin.


1. Apsera L. Efek minyak atsiri daun kemangi Ocimum basilicum sebagai antidepresan pada tikus wistar: ditinjau dari immobility time dengan metode force swim test. Surabaya: Undip; 2010.

2. Castagne V, Moser P, Roux, Porsolt RD. Rodent Models of Depression: Forced UNIT 8.10A Swim and Tail Suspension Behavioral Despair Tests in Rats and Mice. Current Protocols in Neuroscience 8 2011; 10A:1-8.

3. Corwin JE. Patofisiologi. Jakarta: EGC; 2001.

4. Fernandez et al. Central nervous system depressant action of flavonoid glycosides. European Journal of Pharmacology 2006; 539:168-76.
Ganiswara . Farmakologi dan terapi. Jakarta: UIP; 2005.

5. Gradinariu. Comparative efficacy of Ocimum sanctum L. and Ocimum basilicum L. essential oils against amyloid beta (1–42)-induced anxiety and depression in laboratory rats. Phytochem. Rev 2015; 14:567–75.

6. Hozayen WG, El-Desouky MA, Soliman HA, Ahmed RR, Khaliefa AK. Antiosteoporotic effect of Petroselinum crispum, Ocimum basilicum and Cichorium intybus L. in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2016; 16:165.
7. erry L H, Ravinder N B, Pascale M B, Louise B A, Rachel C L. 2016. Depression Medication. [ONLINE] Available at [Accessed on July 17, 2017].

8. Lappin R and Auchincloss E L. Treatment of the Serotonin Syndrome with Cyproheptadine. N Engl J Med 1994; 331:1021-22.

9. Lindley C and Blower, P. "Oral serotonin type 3-receptor antagonists for prevention of chemotherapy-induced emesis". American Journal of Health-
System Pharmacy 2000; 57 (18):1685–97.

10. Martin P, Waters N, Schimdt C J, Carlsson A, Carlson M L. "Rodent data and general hypothesis : antipsychotic action exterd through 5-HT2Areceptor antagonism is dependent in increased serotonergic tone". Journal of Neural Transmission 1998; 105(4-5):365-96.

11. Ministry Department of Health. Riset Kesehatan Dasar. Research and Health Development Agency Ministry Department of Health of Republic Indonesia; 2013.

12. Moss M and Oliver L. Plasma 1,8-cineole correlates with cognitive performance following exposure to rosemary essential oil aroma. Ther Adv Psychopharmacol 2012; 2(3):103–13.

13. Priatna M, Kalpataru Y, Sukmawan YP. Uji Efektifitas Antidepresi Infusa Daun Selasih (Ocimum basilicum Linn) Terhadap Mencit Jantan Galur Swiss Webster. Tasikmalaya: STIKes BTH; 2010.

14. Rabwani M, Sajjadi S E, Vaezi A. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effect of essential oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Ocimum basilicum L. and chemical composition of its essential oil. Res Pharm Sci 2015; 10(6): 535–43.

15. Rossi S. Australian Medicines Handbook. Adelaide: The Australian Medicines Handbook Unit Trust; 2013.

16. Santosh P, Venugopl R, Nilakash A S, Kunjbihari S, Mangala L. Antidepressant activity of methanolic extract of passiflora foetida leaves in mice. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci. 2011; 3(1):112-5.

17. Stone C A, Wenger H C, Ludden C T, Stavorski J M, Ross C A. Antiserotonin-antihistaminic properties of cyproheptadine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics January 1961; 131(1):73-84

18. Sukandar E Y, Ridwan A, Sukmawan Y P. Vasodilatation effect of ethanolic extract of anredera cordifolia, sonchus arvensis l, and ursolic acid on isolated rabbit aortic and frog heart. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci.2016; 8(2):145-9.

`19. Sweetman S C. Martindale The Complete Drug Reference “Thirty Sixth Edition”. London: Pharmaceutical Press; 2009.

20. Tewari D, Pandhey H K, Sah A N, Meena H, Chander V, Singh R et al. Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antidepressant Evaluation of Ocimum basilicum, O. tenuiflorum, O. kilimandscharicum Grown in India. TBAP 2015; 5 (2):120-31.

21. Yi L T, Li C F, Zhan X, Cui C C, Xiao F, Zhou L P, et al. Involvement of monoaminergic system in antidepressant-like effect of flavonoids naringenin in mice. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2010; 34:1223-28.

22. Zheng M, Li Y, Shi D, Liu C, Zhao J. Antidepressan-like effect of flavonoid extracted from Apocynum veneteum leaves in mice : the involvement of monoaminergic system in mice. Afr. J.Pharm. Pharmacol. 2014; 8(29): 765-74.
How to Cite
SUHENDY, Hendy; PRIATNA, Muharam; SUKMAWAN, Yedy Purwandi. Antidepressant Activity of Some Fractions of The Basil Leaves [Ocimum Basilicum (L)] on The Swiss Webster Male Mice. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 16, n. 2, p. 188-193, oct. 2018. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 23 june 2024. doi: