Antibacterial Ability of Ethanol Extract Sabrang Onion (Eleutherine americana) on Shigella dysentriae and Salmonela enteritidis

  • Rizqy Dimas Monica
  • Achadiyani Achadiyani Magister Ilmu Kedokteran Dasar Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Astrid F. Khairani Magister Ilmu Kedokteran Dasar Universitas Padjadjaran
  • Michael V.L Tumbol Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Manado

Abstract

The bacteria Shigella dysentriae and Salmonella enteritidis are gram-negative bacteria in the family Enterobactericeae that cause gastroenteritis. Sabrang onion (Eleutherine americana) is a family Iridaceae, containing flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins. The aims of this study was to determine the antibacterial ablitiy and contact time of ethanol extracts sabrang onion on Shigella dysentriae and Salmonella enteritidis.


Research methods of Laboratory experimental. The antibacterial ability of sabrang onions was measured by the agar diffusion modification method and contact time was measured based on the minimum kill concentration values ​​of Shigella dysentriae and Salmonella enteritidis. Research data analyzed with One way ANOVA.


The results of ethanol extract of Sabrang onion have antibacterial ability against Shigella dysentriae and Salmonella enteritidis, there is a correlation between the concentration of Sabrang onion extract on inhibition zone diameter. The contact time for Shigella dysentriae showed ethanol extract of Sabrang on minimal kill concentration with an 8 hour contact time had a bactericidal effect with the result of a decrease in the number of bacteria 1000 times on the initial inoculum. The bactericidal effect on Salmonella enteritidis shows ethanol extract of Sabrang onions at a minimum kill concentration with contact time of 5 and 10 minutes.


Ethanol extract of Sabrang onion has antibacterial ability against Shigella dysentriae and Salmonella enteritidis. There are differences in the antibacterial effects of ethanol extracts of Sabrang onions against Shigella dysentriae and Salmonella enteritidis at the same contact time with different minimum kill concentration.

References

1. Omore, Audia, Ogwel. Defining the burden and epidemiology of shigellosis in rural Asembo, Western Kenya, 2007-2014. American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene; USA : 2017

2. Agrawal R, Dharmesh S. An anti-Shigella dysenteriae bacteriocin from Pediococcus pentosaceus MTCC 5151 cheese isolate. Turkish Journal of Biology. 2012;36 (2):177-85.

3. Orrett FA. Prevalence of Shigella serogroups and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in southern Trinidad. Journal of health, population and nutrition. 2008;26(4):456.

4. Departemen Kesehatan RI. Survei Kesehatan Nasional 2015. Laporan studi mortalitas pola penyakit penyebab kematian di Indonesia. Jakarta: Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan; 2015

5. Bardhan P, Faruque A, Naheed A, Sack DA. Decreasing Shigellosis-related deaths without Shigella spp.–specific interventions, Asia. Emerging infectious diseases. 2010;16(11):1718.

6. Prihantoro T, Indra R, Sumarno S. Efek antibakteri ekstrak kulit buah delima (punica granatum) terhadap Shigella dysentriae secara in vitro. Jurnal Kedokteran Brawijaya. 2013;22(3):101-6.

7. Todar K. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Todar’s online textbook of bacteriology. 2011:4.p3

8. Singh K-KB, Ojha SC, Deris ZZ, Rahman RA. A 9-year study of Shigellosis in Northeast Malaysia: antimicrobial susceptibility and shifting species dominance. Journal of Public Health. 2011;19(3):231-236.

9. Humphrey T. Salmonella, stress responses and food safety. Nature Reviews Microbiology. 2004;2(6):504-509.

10. Majowicz SE, Musto J, Scallan E, Angulo FJ, Kirk M, O'brien SJ, et al. The global burden of nontyphoidal Salmonella gastroenteritis. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2010;50(6):882-889.

11. Cattoir V, Weill F-X, Poirel L, Fabre L, Soussy C-J, Nordmann P. Prevalence of qnr genes in Salmonella in France. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2007;59(4):751-754.

12. Ifesan BO, Hamtasin C, Mahabusarakam W, Voravuthikunchai SP. Assessment of antistaphylococcal activity of partially purified fractions and pure compounds from Eleutherine americana. Journal of food protection. 2009 Feb;72(2):354-9.

13. Chai SJ, White PL, Lathrop SL, Solghan SM, Medus C, McGlinchey BM, et al. Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis: increasing incidence of domestically acquired infections. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2012;54(suppl_5):S488-S97.

14. Tjaniadi P, Lesmana M, Subekti D, Machpud N, Komalarini S, Santoso W, et al. Antimicrobial resistance of bacterial pathogens associated with diarrheal patients in Indonesia. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2003;68(6):666-670.

15. Pavithra PS, Janani VS, Charumathi KH, Indumathy R, Potala S, Verma RS. Antibacterial activity of plants used in Indian herbal medicine. International Journal of Green Pharmacy (IJGP). 2010;4(1).

16. Bartram T. Bartram's encyclopedia of herbal medicine. Hachette UK; 2013 May 30.

17. EL-Kamali HH, EL-Amir MY. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of ethanolic extracts obtained from selected Sudanese medicinal plants. Current Research Journal of Biological Sciences. 2010;2(2):143-146.

18. Sari LO. Pemanfaatan obat tradisional dengan pertimbangan manfaat dan keamanannya. Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research (PSR). 2012 Aug 7;3(1):1-7.

19. Bent S. Herbal medicine in the United States: review of efficacy, safety, and regulation. Journal of general internal medicine. 2008 Jun 1;23(6):854-9.

20. Oyekunle MA, Aiyelaagbe , Fafunso MA. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of saponins extract of Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2006;5(23)

21. Dharma AP. Tanaman obat tradisional Indonesia. Balai Pustaka; 2006.

22. Putra RY, Haryati H, Mawarni L. Respons Pertumbuhan Dan Hasil Bawang Sabrang (Eleutherine Americana Merr.) Pada Beberapa Jarak Tanam Dan Berbagai Tingkat Pemotongan Umbi Bibit. Agroekoteknologi. 2013 Jan 4;1(1).

23. Ifesan BO, Hamtasin C, Mahabusarakam W, Voravuthikunchai SP. Assessment of anti staphylococcal activity of partially purified fractions and pure compounds from Eleutherine americana. Journal of food protection. 2009 Feb;72(2):354-359.

24. Ali, Mir Naiman, Mazharuddin Khan Mohd, and Mohiuddin Majid. "Ethanol fuel production through microbial extracellular enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation from renewable agrobased cellulosic wastes." International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 2, no. 2 (2011). `

25. Jawetz, Melnick,&Adelberg’s Medical Microbiology. Text Book Medical Mikrobiologi. Geo F. Brooks ; Edisi 25. 2012 : p. 230-235

26. Taneja, Neelam. "Changing epidemiology of shigellosis and emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella in India." Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45, no. 2 (2007): 678-679.

27. Mahon, Connie R., Donald C. Lehman, and George Manuselis. Textbook of Diagnostic Microbiology-E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014.

28. Dewi, Intan Kusuma, Joharman Joharman, and Lia Yulia Budiarti. "Perbandingan Daya Hambat Ekstrak Etanol Dengan Sediaan Sirup Herbal Buah Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi) Terhadap Pertumbuhan Shigella dysenteriae In Vitro." Berkala Kedokteran 9, no. 2 (2013): 191-198.

29. Eswarappa, Sandeepa M, "Differentially evolved genes of Salmonella pathogenicity islands: insights into the mechanism of host specificity in Salmonella." PLOS one 3.12 (2008): e3829.

30. Indonesia, S. N. (2009). Batas maksimum cemaran mikroba dalam pangan. SNI, 7388, 2009.

31. Insanu, Kusmardiyani and Hartati, R., 2014. Recent Studies on Phytochemicals and Pharmacological Effects of Eleutherine americana Merr. Procedia Chemistry, 13, pp.221-228.
Published
2020-04-28
How to Cite
MONICA, Rizqy Dimas et al. Antibacterial Ability of Ethanol Extract Sabrang Onion (Eleutherine americana) on Shigella dysentriae and Salmonela enteritidis. JURNAL ILMU KEFARMASIAN INDONESIA, [S.l.], v. 18, n. 1, p. 109-117, apr. 2020. ISSN 2614-6495. Available at: <http://jifi.farmasi.univpancasila.ac.id/index.php/jifi/article/view/689>. Date accessed: 31 may 2020. doi: https://doi.org/10.35814/jifi.v18i1.689.
Section
Articles